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    Clean energy has a bright future !

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    Clean energy: wind power, solar thermal power generation, the trend of power generation, desalination and other products;

    1, solar energy:

    The sun is a huge, long, endless energy, but also a lot of energy sources. Although the solar radiation to the Earth's atmosphere is only one of its total radiant energy (about 3.75 × 1026W) of 2.2 billion, but has reached 173,000TW, that is, the sun every second to the energy on the earth is quite 5 million tons of coal. Earth's wind energy, water energy, ocean temperature difference, wave energy and biomass energy and some tidal energy are derived from the sun; even the earth's fossil fuels (such as coal, oil, natural gas, etc.) is fundamentally ancient Since the storage of solar energy, so the broad range of solar energy included in the range is very large, narrow solar energy is limited to solar radiation energy of light and heat, photoelectric and photochemical direct conversion. Solar energy is both primary and renewable energy. It is rich in resources, both free of charge, without transport, no pollution to the environment. But solar energy also has two major drawbacks: First, low energy flow density; Second, its strength by various factors (seasons, places, climate, etc.) can not maintain the impact of constant. These two shortcomings greatly limit the effective use of solar energy.

    Advantages of solar energy:

    (1) In general: the sun shines on the earth, there is no geographical restrictions regardless of land or sea, regardless of mountains or islands, are everywhere, can be directly developed and used, and no mining and transportation.

    (2) the general: the development and utilization of solar energy will not pollute the environment, it is one of the most clean energy, environmental pollution is getting worse today, this is extremely valuable.

    (3) In general: the annual solar radiation on the surface of the Earth is about the equivalent of 130 trillion tons of coal, the total amount of energy that can be developed in the world today.

    (4) In general: According to the current solar energy rate estimates, hydrogen reserves enough to maintain billions of years, and the Earth's life is about billions of years, from this sense, it can be said that the sun's energy is Inexhaustible

    2, geothermal energy:

    Geothermal energy is the natural heat energy extracted from the earth's crust, which comes from the lava inside the earth and exists in the form of heat, which is the energy that causes volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. It is the renewable heat from the depths of the earth. The melting of magma and radioactive material in the earth. Its use can be divided into geothermal power generation and direct use of two categories.

    Geothermal energy reserves are many times more than the current total, and are concentrated in the tectonic plate, which is also a volcanic and earthquake-prone area. If the rate of heat extraction does not exceed the speed of the supplement, geothermal energy is renewable. Geothermal energy is widely used in many parts of the world, and it is estimated that the heat energy from the interior of the earth to the ground is estimated to be 100PW · h.

    However, the distribution of geothermal energy is relatively scattered, the development of more difficult.

    Geothermal energy is concentrated in the edge of the tectonic plate, which is also a volcanic and earthquake-prone area. If the rate of heat extraction does not exceed the speed of the supplement, geothermal energy is renewable. Geothermal energy is widely used in many parts of the world. It is estimated that the annual heat transfer from the interior of the earth to the ground is equivalent to 100PW · h. However, the distribution of geothermal energy is relatively scattered, the development of difficult.

    Advantages of geothermal energy:

    At present, the depth of geothermal resources survey can reach 5000 meters below the surface, the global storage of geothermal resources is equivalent to 500 billion tons of standard coal equivalent. The use of geothermal energy can be divided into geothermal power generation and direct use of two categories. Geothermal power generation is the most important way of geothermal utilization. It does not require huge boilers like thermal power generation, and it does not need to consume fuel. It first converts underground heat into mechanical energy and then converts it into electricity. Geothermal can also be used directly for heating, heating and hot water, simple economy

    3, wind energy:

    The wind is a natural phenomenon on the earth, which is caused by the heat of solar radiation. The sun shines on the surface of the earth, and the surface of the earth is heated differently, resulting in a temperature difference that causes the atmosphere to form a wind. It is estimated that only about 2% of the earth's solar energy is converted to wind energy, but its total is still very impressive. The world's wind energy is about 2.74X109MW, which can be used for wind 2X107MW, than the earth can develop and use the total amount of water can be 10 times larger.

    Wind energy is a huge potential for the development of pollution-free renewable energy, especially for coastal islands, traffic inconvenient remote mountainous areas, sparsely grassland pastures, as well as away from the grid and the recent power grid is also difficult to achieve the rural, As a reliable way to solve the production and living energy, has a very important significance. Even in developed countries, efficient and clean winds are gaining increasing attention.

    Advantages of wind energy:

    (1) wind energy for clean energy sources.

    (2) Increasing wind energy facilities, mass production to reduce costs, at the right place, wind power costs have been lower than the generator.

    (3) wind energy facilities are mostly non-dimensional facilities, can protect the land and ecology.

    (4) wind energy is renewable energy, very environmentally friendly.

    4, ocean energy:

    The sea, not only for mankind to provide shipping, water and rich mineral deposits, but also contains a huge amount of energy, it will be derived from solar energy and wind energy, mechanical energy and other forms of storage in the sea, unlike in the land and the air as easy to lose The Marine energy is a renewable energy source that is attached to seawater. The ocean receives, stores and disperses energy through various physical processes that exist in the ocean in the form of tides, waves, temperature differences, salinity gradients, currents, etc. as follows:

    Tides and tides can originate from the moon, the sun's gravity, other ocean energy from solar radiation, the ocean area accounts for 71% of the total area of ​​the earth, the sun reaches the earth's energy, mostly in the sea and sea water, part of the conversion into the Kind of ocean energy.

    Sea water temperature difference is the heat, low latitude sea surface temperature is higher, and deep cold water temperature difference, and store the temperature difference heat energy, its energy and temperature difference is proportional to the size and quantity of water.

    Tides, tidal currents, currents, and ocean currents are mechanical energy. Tidal energy is the energy that is generated by the rotation of the earth and is transmitted to the ocean through the gravitational action of the sun and the moon. The energy stored by the long period wave, the energy of the tide and the magnitude of the tidal range And the tidal volume is proportional to the trend of the current and the flow of the square and the flow rate is proportional to the flow; wave energy is a kind of wind produced by the role of energy and kinetic energy in the form of short-period wave storage of mechanical energy, The energy is proportional to the square of the wave height and the area of ​​the fluctuating waters.

    The difference in salinity of seawater in the estuarine waters is that there is a difference in salinity between fresh water and sea salt water in the sea runoff. If the semi-permeable membrane is separated, the fresh water will penetrate the seawater to produce osmotic pressure, and its energy and pressure difference Traffic is proportional. So a variety of energy involved in the development of physical process technology and the degree of development and utilization of such a large difference.

    Advantages of ocean energy:

    (1) the global ocean energy can be a lot of renewable. According to the estimates of UNESCO's 1981 publication, the five types of marine energy can be re-regenerated in theory for 76.6 billion kilowatts. Which can be 40 billion kilowatts, the salt can be 30 billion kilowatts, tidal and wave energy of 3 billion kilowatts, the current can be 600 million kilowatts. However, it is difficult to achieve the above-mentioned all the energy as described above. It is envisaged that only strong currents, tides and waves can be used. The salinity of the large rainfall area is poor and the temperature difference is limited by the efficiency of the heating machine. Therefore, it is estimated that the technology allows the use of power of 6.4 billion kilowatts, of which salt can be 3 billion kilowatts, the temperature difference of 2 billion kilowatts, wave energy of 1 billion kilowatts, ocean currents can be 300 million kilowatts, tidal energy 100 million kilowatts (estimates).

    (2) the intensity of ocean energy is lower than conventional energy. Water temperature is small, the sea and 500 ~ 1000 meters deep water between the larger temperature difference is only about 20 ℃; tide, wave water level difference is small, the greater the tide is only 7-10 meters, the larger wave height of only 3 meters; Speed ​​is small, the larger flow rate of only 4 to 7 knots. Even so, in the renewable energy, the ocean can still have a considerable energy density. In the case of wave energy, for example, the average wave power per meter of coastline is 50 kilowatts in the most abundant waters, typically 5 to 6 kilowatts; the latter is equivalent to a solar energy density of 1 kW / m2. Another example is the trend, the maximum flow rate of 3 m / s Zhoushan archipelago, the average power flow in a trend cycle of 4.5 kW / m 2. The ocean can change as a natural energy at any time. But the ocean is a huge storage pool, the solar energy and derived wind energy and other heat, mechanical energy and other forms of storage in the sea, not as in the land and the air as easy to lose. Sea water temperature difference, poor salinity and current are more stable, 24 hours without interruption, day and night fluctuations, only a slight seasonal changes. Tide, tidal current is a constant cyclical changes, the tide, small tide, high tide, tide, tide, tidal speed, direction can be accurately predicted. The waves are the most unstable in the ocean, seasonal, cyclical, and the adjacent cycle is also changing. But the waves are the sum of storms and surges, and the waves from the vast sea of ​​continuous wind energy, unlike the local sun and the wind as easy to sudden start and by the impact of local weather.

    5, bio-energy:

    Biomass refers to a variety of organisms produced by photosynthesis. Bioenergy is an energy form in which solar energy is stored in the form of chemical energy, a biomass-based energy that is directly or indirectly derived from plants Of photosynthesis. In a variety of renewable energy, biomass is unique, it is the storage of solar energy, it is a unique renewable carbon source can be converted into conventional solid, liquid and gaseous fuel.

    It is estimated that the annual plant photosynthesis of the earth is fixed at 2x1011t, containing 3x1021J of energy, and the annual solar energy stored in the branches, stems and leaves of photosynthesis is 10 times the annual energy consumption of the whole world. Biological energy is the fourth largest energy, biomass all over the world, its reserves are great. The world's biomass resources are numerous and diverse in form, including fuelwood, agroforestry crops, especially energy crops, agricultural and forestry residues, food processing and forestry products for the production of energy, urban solid Waste, domestic sewage and aquatic plants.

    Advantages of bio-energy:

    (1) to provide low sulfur fuel.

    (2) to provide cheap energy (under certain conditions).

    (3) The conversion of organic matter into fuels reduces environmental hazards (eg, waste fuel).

    (4) compared with other non-traditional energy, technical problems less.