Solar Panels 

A solar panel system is a power generation system with photovoltaic modules.

The solar electricity panels system is a power generation system of photovoltaic modules.
It mainly includes solar panels, batteries, controllers and inverters, and other auxiliary equipment including PV mounts, solar cables, etc.
In addition, depending on the capacity of the system, a sink box, AC/DC distribution cabinet, and other equipment may be required.
Solar panels (also called solar modules) are the core part of a solar power system and the most basic part of a solar power system.
Solar cells, also known as "solar chips" or "photovoltaic cells", are thin sheets of optoelectronic semiconductors that directly generate electricity. Individual solar cells cannot be used directly as a power source.
ZMS solar PV system products can be widely used in homes, ranches, base station projects, and other power uses.

How do solar panels produce energy?

A solar cell is a device that converts light energy directly into electricity through the photovoltaic effect or photochemical effect.

Crystalline silicon solar panels working with photovoltaic effects are mainstream, while solar panels implemented with thin-film cells working with photochemical effects are still in the nascent stage.

Types of Solar Panels

Monocrystalline Solar Panels

Monocrystalline sun cable panels are modules consisting of high conversion efficiency monocrystalline silicon cells in different series and parallel arrays.

ZMS monocrystalline solar panels are robust and have a life span of up to 20 years.

These solar panels offer higher conversion efficiencies than polycrystalline solar panels and are less expensive to produce.

1. Glass: Ultra-white fabric tempered glass, thickness 3.2mm, in the wavelength range of the solar cell spectral response (320-1100nm) light transmission rate of 91% or more. It is resistant to ultraviolet radiation and the light transmission rate does not decrease. Tempered glass components can withstand the impact of a 25mm diameter puck at a speed of 23m/s.

2. EVA: High-quality EVA film layer with a thickness of 0. 5mm is used as the sealing agent of the solar cell and the connecting agent between glass and TPT. It has high light transmittance and anti-aging ability.
Performance standards of EVA film for solar cell encapsulation after curing
Light transmittance greater than 90%; cross-linking degree greater than 65-85%; peel strength (N/cm), glass / adhesive film greater than 30. TPT / adhesive film greater than 15. temperature resistance: high temperature 85 ℃, low temperature -40 ℃.

3. TPT: The back side of the solar cell, aging resistance, corrosion resistance, UV radiation resistance, impermeability, and other basic requirements.

4. Frame: The aluminum alloy frame used has high strength and strong resistance to mechanical impact.

Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Panels

The production process of polycrystalline silicon solar panels is similar to that of monocrystalline silicon solar panels, but the photoelectric conversion efficiency of polycrystalline silicon solar panels is much lower.

Its photoelectric conversion efficiency is about 12% (July 1, 2004, Sharp Japan listed the world’s highest efficiency polycrystalline silicon solar panels with 14.8% efficiency).

In terms of production cost, it is cheaper than monocrystalline silicon solar panels, is easy to manufacture materials, and saves electricity consumption, the total production cost is lower, so it has been developed in large quantities.

Amorphous Silicon Solar Panels

Amorphous silicon solar PV panel is a new type of thin-film solar panel that appeared in 1976. It is completely different from monocrystalline silicon and polycrystalline silicon solar panels, the process is greatly simplified, silicon material consumption is very little, and electricity consumption is much lower.

Its main advantage is that it can generate electricity even in low-light conditions. However, the main problem of amorphous silicon solar panels is the low photoelectric conversion efficiency, the international advanced level of about 10%, and is not stable enough, with the extension of time, its conversion efficiency decay.

The Material Composition Of Solar Panels

Solar PV cells module composition and the function of each part--

Tempered Glass
Its role is to protect the main body of power generation cells, etc., the selection of its requirements is:
1. The light transmission rate must be high, generally 91% or more.
2. Super white tempering treatment.
Used for bonding fixed tempered glass and power generation body.
Transparent EVA material has a direct impact on the life of the module. EVA exposed to the air is prone to aging and yellowing, which affects the light transmission rate of the module, thus affecting the quality of the module's power generation.
The lamination process of module manufacturers also has a great impact, such as EVA adhesive degree is not up to standard, EVA and tempered glass, and backsheet bonding strength is not enough, which will cause early aging of EVA, affecting the life of the module.
The main role is to generate electricity, the mainstream of the power generation market is crystalline silicon solar cells, and thin film solar cells, both have their advantages and disadvantages.
For crystalline silicon solar cells, equipment costs are relatively low, and photoelectric conversion efficiency is also high, in outdoor sunlight power generation is more suitable, but the consumption and cell costs are very high.
Thin film solar cells, consumption, and cell cost are very low, and the low light effect is very good, ordinary light can also generate electricity, but the relative equipment cost is high, and the photoelectric conversion efficiency is relatively crystalline silicon cells more than half, such as the calculator solar cells.
Its role is to seal, insulant, and waterproof, generally with TPT, TPE, and other materials that must be resistant to aging.
Zms cable manufacturer component warranty is 25 years, tempered glass, and aluminum alloy are no problem, for the backsheet and silicone requirements are extremely high and have standards.
Aluminum alloy protection laminate play a certain sealing, and support role.
Junction Box
It protects the whole power generation system and plays the role of the current transfer station.
If the module short-circuit junction box automatically disconnects the short-circuit battery string to prevent burning the whole system.
The most critical thing in the junction box is the selection of diodes, according to the different types of cells in the module, the corresponding diodes are also different.
Silicone Rubber
It plays a sealing role and is used to seal the junction of the module and aluminum alloy frame, module, and junction box.

Common Applications Of Solar Panels

1. User Solar Power Supply.
(1) Small power supply ranging from 10-100W, for remote areas without electricity such as plateaus, islands, pastoral areas, border guard posts, and other military and civilian life with electricity, such as lighting, TV, recorders, etc.
(2) 3-5KW family rooftop grid-connected power generation system
(3) Photovoltaic water pump: to solve the deep water well drinking and irrigation in areas without electricity.
2. Transportation Field

Such as beacon lights, traffic/railway signal lights, traffic warning/sign lights, Yuxiang street lights, high altitude obstacle lights, highway/railway wireless telephone booths, unattended road shift power supply, etc.
3. Communication/Communication Field

Solar unattended microwave relay station, optical cable maintenance station, broadcasting/communication/paging power supply system. Rural carrier phone photovoltaic system, small communication machine, GPS power supply for soldiers, etc.
4. Oil, Marine, and Meteorological Fields

Solar power supply system for cathodic protection of oil pipelines and reservoir gates, life, and emergency power supply for oil drilling platforms, marine detection equipment, meteorological/hydrological observation equipment, etc.
5. Home Lighting Power Supply

Such as garden lights, street lights, portable lights, camping lights, hiking lights, fishing lights, black lights, rubber cutting lights, energy-saving lights, etc.
6. Photovoltaic Power Station

10KW-50MW independent photovoltaic power station, scenery (firewood) complementary power station, various large parking plant charging stations, etc.
7. Solar Building

The combination of solar power generation and building materials, making the future of large buildings achieve power self-sufficiency, is a major future development direction.
8. Other Areas Include
(1) Supporting automobiles: solar cars/electric vehicles, battery charging equipment, automobile air conditioners, ventilation fans, cold drink boxes, etc.
(2) Solar hydrogen plus fuel cells regenerative power generation system.
(3) Desalination equipment power supply.
(4) Satellites, spacecraft, space solar power stations, etc.

Follow ZMS cable, selecting the best solar panels.

Solar Panel Parameters

Short circuit current(isc)


Solar cell positive and negative short circuit so that u = 0, at this time the current is the short-circuit current of the cell, with the change of light intensity and change.
Open circuit voltage(uoc)Volt(v)

Solar cell positive and negative terminals are not connected to the load so that i = 0, at this time the voltage between the positive and negative battery is the open circuit voltage.

The open-circuit voltage of a single solar cell does not change with the increase or decrease in the cell area, generally 0.5 to 0.7v.

Peak current(im)


It is the operating current of the solar cell when it outputs the maximum power.
Peak voltage(um)Volt(v)It is the operating voltage when the solar cell outputs the maximum power.

It does not change with the increase or decrease of the cell area, and is generally 0.45 to 0.5v, with a typical value of 0.48v.

Peak power(pm)


It is the maximum output power of a solar cell under normal operating or test conditions, which is the product of peak current and peak voltage: pm == == im × um.
It depends on the solar irradiance, the solar spectrum distribution, and the working temperature of the cell. The measurement standard is the European Commission's standard 101, and the conditions are irradiance lkw/㎡, spectrum aml.5, and test temperature 25℃.
Fill factor(ff)/It is also called the curve factor, which is the ratio of the maximum output power of a solar cell to the product of open circuit voltage and short circuit current. The calculation formula is ff=pm/(isc×uoc).
The higher the value of the fill factor, the more the output characteristics of the solar cell tend to be rectangular, and the higher the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the cell.
The coefficient is generally between 0.5 and 0.8, and can also be expressed as a percentage.
Conversion efficiency(η)/This refers to the ratio of the maximum output power of the solar cell when it is illuminated to the power of the sun's energy irradiated to the cell. That is η = pm (peak efficiency of the cell) / an (area of the cell) × pin (incident light power per unit area), where pin = lkw / ㎡ = 100mw / cm2.

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